Something based on lines of code like COCOMO is probably not a good estimate for a kernel.
Kernel debugging is harder for one. Many of the drivers required some level of reverse engineering as well.
I’d say every “Kernel line of code” is probably worth 10 lines of code in userspace, if not more.
Why? Because you think there’s some fundamental difference between low level and high level code?
Papayas don’t need to be ripe to be useful. Green papayas can be pickled and be just as tasty as sweet ripe ones. The only differentiation is the time of picking.
Why would you give bonus points to the early pickers just because you don’t understand the pickling process?
What in the fuck are you talking about.